National Indian Country Clearinghouse on Sexual Assault

LGBTQISexual violence carries with it many long-term, adverse health consequences for victims.


Although the majority of victims do not suffer recognizable physical injuries as a result of the sexual assault, bruising, swelling, or cuts are not uncommon.   Genital injuries, gynecological complications, bleeding, infection, pelvic pain, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and urinary tract infections may also result from the sexual violence.

Victims may face unwanted pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes, and HIV/AIDS.  Sexual violence can also put women at a much higher risk for:

conf1 Chronic diseases (such as osteoarthritis and chronic pain)
conf1 Depression, Anxiety and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
conf1 Substance abuse (tranquilizers, sedatives, pain-killers, anti-depressants, “recreational” drugs, etc.)
conf1 Alcohol abuse
conf1 Suicide and suicide attempts
conf1 Eating disorders
conf1 Gastrointestinal diseases


In 1996 the United States Department of Justice conducted a study that indicated that the short term costs of medical care, mental healthcare services, lost productivity, and pain and suffering per adult sexual assault victim is estimated at $87,000 per episode of sexual violence.  The total costs incurred by treating and responding to adult victims of sexual assaults is approximately $127 billion per year.





Additional Resources - (15)

Medical Resources - (2)

Protocols - (1)


Full Publication List



Featured Publications


Recovering from Crime: Steps for the Physically Injured Victim


Recovering from Crime: Steps for the Physically Injured Victim


This brochure, published by the Office for Victims of Crime, was designed for use during a victim's hospitalization for crime-related injuries. The program provides victims of violent crime with information about emotional responses to victimization, elements of medical follow-up, physical rehabilitation processes, and the criminal justice system.



The Cycle of Violence Revisited


The Cycle of Violence Revisited


This NIJ Research Preview describes findings in a series of ongoing studies of the potential "cycle of violence" for young victims of abuse. Children identified in court cases as victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect were tracked over time to examine risk factors, criminal justice interventions, and arrest rates as they grew into adulthood. This report also discusses some of the long-term psychological effects of early victimization.



World Report on Violence and Health


World Report on Violence and Health


This report, produced by the World Health Organization, discusses the widespread health impact that violence can have on its victims.



National Indian Country Clearinghouse on Sexual Assault, a project by the Southwest Center for Law and Policy © 2019

This project was supported by  Grant No. 2011-TA-AX-K045 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women. Points of view in this document are those of the author and do not necessary represent the official position of the U.S. Department of Justice. All rights reserved. | Privacy policy   Login